Research Website

Andrew G. Sykes, Professor & Chair, Inorganic Chemistry

1992-94 Camille and Henry Dreyfus Fellow, Northern Arizona University; 1990-92 Postdoctoral Research Associate, California Institute of Technology; 1990 Ph.D., University of Minnesota; 1984 M.S., Montana State University; 1982 B.S., St. Lawrence University


L to R: Janani Ragathoman (Iowa State, U), Vinothini Balasubramanian (G), Bin Yao (G), Dasha Weatherman (G), Professor Sykes, Orlana Schmidt (Sinte Gleska Univ, U), Jeff Webster (Nebraska Indian Comm. College, U), Mariah Hoffman (USD, U), Dr. M. Kadarkaraisamy (G = graduate student, U = undergraduate, H = high school).

Our main research emphasis involves the design of novel chemical sensors, molecules that complex other guest molecules or ions and signal a recognition event, usually through a change in response of the host molecule to light. Our approach uses an anthraquinone platform and substitutes organic directing groups on the same side of the anthraquinone. The host can then coordinate guest molecules in close proximity to one of the carbonyl groups, changing the fluorescence response of the anthraquinone. The “shrubbery” suspended by the anthraquinone can be varied, greatly influencing the emission and controlling the selectivity of the host. Pendent groups can include PET, ICT and FRET type photophysical processes.

Recent Publications

Selective fluorescence sensing of copper(II) and water via competing imine hydrolysis and alcohol oxidation pathways sensitive to water content in aqueous acetonitrile mixtures, Mariappan, K.; Alaparthi, M.; Caple, G.; Balasubramanian, V.; Hoffman*, M.; Hudspeth*, M.;  Sykes, Andrew G., Inorg. Chem. 2014,  53, 2953.

(BMI)3LnCl6 Crystals as Models for the Coordination Environment of LnCl3 (Ln = Sm, Eu, Dy, Er, Yb) in 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Chloride Ionic-Liquid Solution, Yulun Han, Cuikun Lin, Qingguo Meng, Fengrong Dai, Andrew G. Sykes, Mary T. Berry, and P. Stanley May, Inorg. Chem. 2014, 53, pp 5494.

(Review) The Chemistry of Constrained Crown Ring Systems and Fluorescence Sensor Applications, Mariappan, K. and Sykes, Andrew G., Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry 2013, 75, 23.

Synthesis, reactivity, catenation and X-ray crystallography of Ag+ and Cu+ complexes of anthraquinone-based selenoethers: A luminescent chemodosimeter for Cu2+ and Fe3+, Kadarkaraisamy Mariappan, Prem Nath Basa, Vinothini Balasubramanian, Sarah Fuoss*, Andrew G. Sykes, Polyhedron,  2013, 55, 144.

Differential sensing of Zn(II) and Cu(II) via two independent mechanisms, Basa, Prem; Sykes, Andrew G., J. Org. Chem. 2012, 77, 8428.

Zinc(II) Mediated Imine–Enamine Tautomerization, Prem N. Basa, Arundhati Bhowmick, LaShawn Medicine Horn, and Andrew G. Sykes, Org. Lett., 2012, 14(11), 2698.

Preparation of onium salts of a reduced anthracenone crown ether macrocycle: A reactivity series involving pyridine, phosphine, thiophene, nitrile and primary amide nucleophiles, Kadarkaraisamy, M., Caple, G. Basa, P.N.; Sykes, A.G. J. Phys. Org. Chem. 2012, 25(8), 686.

A simple acrylic acid functionalized zinc porphyrin for cost-effective dye-sensitized solar cells Hongshan He, Ashim Gurung, Liping Si and Andrew G. Sykes, Chem. Commun., 2012, 48, 7619.

Site-Selective Imination of an Anthracenone Sensor: Selective Fluorescence Detection of Barium(II), Basa, Prem N.; Bhowmick, Arundhati; Schulz, Mariah M.; Sykes, Andrew G. J. Org. Chem. 2011, 76(19), 7866.

Substitution of Thiophene Oligomers with Macrocyclic End Caps and the Colorimetric Detection of Hg(II), Mariappan Kadarkaraisamy, Soudsakhone Thammavongkeo, Prem N. Basa, Gerald Caple, and Andrew G. Sykes, Org. Lett., 2011, 13 (9), 2364.

4-tert-Butylpyridinium triiodide-4-tert-butylpyridine, Hongshan He and Andrew G. Sykes, Acta Crystall. E 2011, 67, o434.

2-(1-Acetyl-2-oxopropyl)-5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin and Its Transition-Metal Complexes, He, Hongshan; Dubey, Mukul; Zhong, Yihan; Shrestha, Maheshwar; Sykes, Andrew G., Eur. J. of Inorg. Chem., 2011, 25, 3731.

Structural, photophysical and theoretical studies of two dodecachlorinated porphyrins, He, H.; Zhong, Y.; Si, L.; Sykes, A. Inorg. Chim. Acta 2011, 378, 30.

Di-μ-pivalato-κ3O,O_:O_;κ3O:O,O_-bis[(methanol-κO)bis-(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-heptane-3,5-dionato)praseodymium(III)], Meng, Q.; Cross, A.M.; May, P.S.; Sykes, A.G.; Berry, M.T. Acta Cryst. E 2011, E67, m1514.

BODIPY chromophores as efficient green light sensitizers for lanthanide-induced near-infrared emission, He, H.; Sykes. A.G. Dalton Trans., 2011, 40, 11389-11395.

Hybridization of near-infrared emitting erbium(III) and ytterbium(III) monoporphyrinate complexes with silica xerogel: synthesis, structure and photophysics, Hongshan He, Mukul Dubey, Andrew G. Sykes, P. Stanley May, Dalton Trans., 2010, (28), 6466.

Hexafluorophosphate salts of bis and tetrakis(2,2’-bipyridine)lead(II) complexes, Mariappan Kadarkaraisamy, Daniel P. Engelhart, Prem N. Basa, and Andrew G. Sykes, J. Coord. Chem., 2010, 63, 1029.

Structure and photophysics of near-infrared emissive ytterbium(III) monoporphyrinate acetate complexes having neutral bidentate ligands, Hongshan He, Andrew G. Sykes, P. Stanley May, Guishan He, Dalton Trans., 2009, 7454.

Chelating, Bridging, and Chain Structures within Ag(I) and Cu(I) Complexes of bis(nicotinyloxy), bis(Isonicotinyloxy), and bis(pyrimidine-5-carboxyloxy)-1,8-Disubstituted Anthraquinone Ligands, Stephanie S. Peterson, Tishal Kirby, Mariappan Kadarkaraisamy, Richard M. Hartshorn, Andrew G. Sykes, Polyhedron, 2009, 28, 3031.

Large Amplitude, Proton- and Cation-activated Latch-type Mechanical Switches: O-Protonated Amides Stabilized by Intramolecular, Low-Barrier Hydrogen Bonds (LBHB) within Macrocycles, Mariappan Kadarkaraisamy, Gerald Caple, Andrea R. Gorden, Marie Squire, Andrew G. Sykes, Inorg. Chem. 2008, 47, 11644.

Facile preparation of neutral monoporphyrinate lanthanide complexes with strong near-infrared emission,” Hongshan He and Andrew G. Sykes, Inorg. Chem. Comm., 2008, 1304.

Crystallography and photoluminescence properties of b-diketonate monoporphyrinate ytterbium (III) complexes, Hongshan He, Andrew G. Sykes, David Galipeau, Seik Weng Ng, Michael Ropp Inorg. Chem. Comm., 2008, 1051.

Monomeric Complexes of 1,8-bis(isonicotinyloxy)anthracene-9,10-dione, Dan Engelhart, Mariappan Kadarkaraisamy, and Andrew G. Sykes, J. Coord. Chem. 2008, 61, 3887.

Complexation, Crystallography, and Electrochemistry of New Chelating Nicotinyl and Thiazolyl Anthraquinone Ligands, Mariappan Kadarkaraisamy, Debdutta Mukherjee, Chin Chen Soh and Andrew G. Sykes, Polyhedron 2007, 26, 4085.

Selective Luminescence Detection of Cadmium(II) and Mercury(II) utilizing Sulfur-Containing Anthraquinone Macrocycles (Part 2) and Formation of an unusual Hg22+- Crown Ether Dimer via Reduction of Hg(II) by DMF, Mariappan Kadarkaraisamy and Andrew G. Sykes, Polyhedron 2007, 26, 1323.

Crystallographic and Fluorescence Studies of Ammonium and Water Adducts of Anthraquinone Fluorophores, Zhen Liu and Andrew G. Sykes, Journal of Chemical Crystallography 2006, 36, 875.

Synthesis, Characterization and Photophysical Properties of Mixed Ligand Tris(polypyridyl)chromium(III) Complexes, Mauricio Isaacs, Andrew G. Sykes and Silvia Ronco, Inorganica Chimica Acta 2006, 359, 3847.

Luminescence Detection of Transition and Heavy Metals by Inversion of Excited States: Synthesis, Spectroscopy and X-ray Crystallography of Ca, Mn, Pb and Zn Complexes of 1,8-Anthraquinone-18-Crown-5, Mariappan Kadarkaraisamy and Andrew G. Sykes, Inorganic Chemistry 2006, 45, 779.

Structural and Electronic Features Important to nπ*–ππ* inversion Sensors: Synthesis, Luminescence, and Electrochemical Properties of Sulfur and Chlorine-containing Macrocycles. Part 3, Mariappan Kadarkaraisamy, Eric Dufek, Desire Lone Elk and Andrew G. Sykes, Tetrahedron 2005, 61, 479.

Updated: June 2014